(Acido)gastroenteromonitor Gastroscan-GEM is designed for the simultaneous study of electrical activity and the acidity of the gastrointestinal tract. Russian specification of the Gastroscan-GEM is ГЭМ-01, ТУ 9441-009-13306657-2007.
- registers an electrical signal from the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and large intestine by means of cutaneous electrodes, superimposed on a limb or the patient or on the surface of the anterior abdominal wall. Registration takes either one (three cutaneous electrodes) or two (five cutaneous electrodes) electrogastroenterography channels
- long-term (48 h) measurement of acidity simultaneously in three locations of the gastrointestinal tract
- the interval between measurements of pH is 1 sec
- provides registration of the patient and his actions with the keyboard located on the front panel
- current results of pH measurements can be displayed directly recording unit during the study
- processes the information stored on your computer
- provides information about the state of the gastrointestinal tract
- save the results of research in the database.
- detects acid related pathology and gastrointestinal motility disorders
- selects individual drug therapy
Electrogastrography and electrogastroenterography
Motility of gastrointestinal tract tract is results from coordinated contractions of smooth muscle, which in turn derive from two basic patterns of electrical activity across the membranes of smooth muscle cells — slow waves and action potentials. Slow waves are initiated by pacemakers — the interstitial cells of Cajal. Slow wave frequency varies in the different organs of the gastrointestinal tract and is characteristic for that organ. They set the maximum frequency at which the muscle can contract:
- stomach — about 3 waves in a minute,
- duodenum — about 12 waves in a minute,
- ileum — about 8 waves in a minute,
- rectum — about 17 waves in a minute
- jejunum — about 11 waves in a minute.
The illustration on the right shows the location of electrodes in the standard short-term cutaneous electrogastroenterography
The electrical activity of the gastrointestinal tract can be subdivided into two categories: electrical control activity and electrical response activity. Electrical control activity is characterized by regularly recurring electrical potentials, originating in the gastric pacemaker located in the body of stomach. The slow waves are not a direct reason of peristalsis of a gastrointestinal tract, but a correlation between deviations of slow waves from norm and motility abnormalities however is proved.
Electrogastrography is a medical prosedure which records the electrical signals that travel through the stomach muscles and control the muscles' contractions.
Electrogastroenterography is the same prosedure, used the electrical signals not only from stomach, but from different divisions of intestine.
The illustration on the right shows the location of electrodes in the standard short-term cutaneous electrogastrography
The Gastroscan-GEM may be used to:
- Short-term standard cutaneous electrogastrography
- Short-term standard cutaneous electrogastroenterography
- 24-h cutaneous electrogastroenterography
Gastroscan-GEM and the space experiments
Revised the acidogasrtoenterograph Gastroscan-GEM, named the Splanhograph was used in the Mars-500 experiment and are used in the International Space Station in the Splanh experiment now.
Medical book and articles about electrogastroenterography and electrogastrography
More information about the Gastroscan-GEM in Russian read here.